Regular issue of quarterly scientific and popular Miras Magazine, which is published by Magtumguly Institute of Language, Literature and National Manuscripts of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan, has been released. Addressed to wide reading audience, the issue continues series of articles about discoveries and results of study of spiritual heritage of the nation.
The content of new issues of the magazine includes articles of historians and archaeologists, ethnographers and cultural, language and literature scientists.
Traditional section “Discoveries and New Developments” continues series of publications about results of studies of Magtumguly Fragi activity, which reflect inexhaustible interest raised all over the world in the poet, views and works filed with humanistic ideals of the genius of national classic literature.
Article “Depth of philosophic thought and power of poetic imagination of Magtumguly Fragi” notes the relationship and interference of written literature and oral traditions on artistic heritage of great poet of our nation, the founder of modern Turkmen literary language.
Literary heritage of Turkmen nation is distinguished with rich palette and variety, which allows seeing deep roots of spiritual virtues in the poetry of the period under study. Special place in this evolutionary process belongs to Magutmguly poetry.
Based on various sources and artefacts discovered in the result of archaeological excavations, the author of article “Pottery of Shehrislam” presents interesting data on the history of development of this craft.
As is known, the State Programme of archaeological excavations at historical and cultural monuments located along the Silk Road in Turkmenistan and scientific study of cultural heritage and its popularization in 2018 – 2021 has been approved. According with this Programme, the list of facilities to be explored includes medieval city of Shehrislam.
It is noted in the article that pottery and ceramic items discovered during excavations of this monument are distinguished with unique method of glazing and ornament drawing. It was found out at medieval craftsmen applied special methods of picturing flowers, animals, embossing of patterns on jugs, which have been passed from generations to generations and remained until our days.
The presented facts allows making grounded conclusion that this city used to be one of big trade and economic centres in the Middle Age, the city where skilful craftsmen, which high level of skills was described by the Head of the State in his two-volume book “Turkmenistan – Heart of the Great Silk Road” , used to live.
Section “Interaction of cultures, nations and civilizations” has an article “Abu Ali Ibn Sina in the view of Nesimi”, which gives analysis of influence of medieval Islamic philosophy on the formation of foundations and literary traditions in works of the famous poet.
Article “Emergence of commodity and monetary relations in Turkmenistan” states that numismatics, the science about coins, is very important among historical sources, which are national values. It is mentioned in the publication that monetary circulation on the territory of our country has started at the end of the IV BC.
The most ancient coins were used in the Kingdom of Margush, which was located in the downstream of Murgab River and Northern Bactria (Current Eastern Turkmenistan). The coins represent casted lead alloy round discs with the hole in the centre.
A hoard of such proto coins have been found during field works in Adjiku Oasis and the Kingdom of Margush (near modern city of Magdanly located in the midstream of right bank of Amudarya).
Analysing the name of Magdanly, which is translated as ‘mining’, the author of the article highlights that rich deposits of lead ore has been located in this place from ancient times. probably, this was a place where lead alloy coins were casted to the forms and delivered to trade cities of Margiana where they have been used as money.
The coins can be dated by the last period of Margush Civilization (end of the second millennium BC). Such coins appeared in Ancient China only in the XII BC, therefore, money from Bactria, Margiana and China, which were official means of payment, are the most ancient in the world.
Use of coins, which had certain weight, look and value, become possible in the period of history when development of society has reached high level and trade activity caused the necessity of transit to commodity and monetary system. The coinage was carried out under control and leadership of the authorities.
It is mentioned in the article that invention of coins in the history of human society has become an important event in life of people. The study is based on rich historical material, which gives opportunity to the reader to learn the history of money.
Chronicles of Scientific and Cultural Life gives review of events of social, scientific and cultural life of the country in the third quarter of the last year.
Numerous pictures serves as an excellent addition to the articles of Miras Magazine, which is published in Turkmen, English and Russian languages.
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